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Geophagus brokopondo KULLANDER & NIJSSEN, 1989

March 13th, 2012 — 1:25pm

This species is very rarely-traded since collections of fishes for commercial purposes aren’t common in Suriname. It’s a member of the nominal G. surinamensis ‘group’ of closely-related species within the genus and can be identified by a combination of characters including: no dark preopercular marking; six vertical/parallel bars on each flank (normally visible only when the fish are stressed, spawning or preserved); dark, squarish lateral spot positioned within the third vertical bar; sixth (posterior) bar elongate an…

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Geophagus abalios LÓPEZ-FERNÁNDEZ & TAPHORN, 2004

March 13th, 2012 — 1:25pm

It also occurs in the río Caura on the Guyana Shield plus the Ventauri and Mavaca drainages in the middle and upper Orinoco where it’s also known from some white water, referring to turbidity rather than turbulence, habitats. To the north its distribution appears limited by the Las Majaguas dam on the Río Cojedes, a tributary of the Apure where a probable introduced population inhabits the res…

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Geophagus dicrozoster LÓPEZ-FERNÁNDEZ & TAPHORN, 2004

March 13th, 2012 — 1:25pm

It’s a member of the nominal G. surinamensis ‘group’ of closely-related species within the genus and can be identified by a combination of characters including: presence of dark preopercular markings; seven parallel vertical bars on each flank (normally visible only when the fish are stressed, spawning or preserved); vertical bars four and five meet in such a way that they form a ‘Y’ shape; dark lateral spot positioned within the third vertical bar; caudal fin reddish with variable pattern of iridescent blue spots and stripes.

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Geophagus neambi LUCINDA, LUCENA & ASSIS, 2010

March 13th, 2012 — 1:25pm

This species was available in the hobby several years prior to being described, invariably traded as G. sp. aff. altifrons ‘Tocantins’, G. sp. ‘Tocantins’ or G. sp. ‘rio Areoes’. The latter of these names refers to an Indian reserve named ‘Areões’ in the rio Das Mortes drainage, a tributary of the Araguaia which itself drains into the Tocantins, and the aquarium specimens in our images have been identified as G. neambi by Dr. Paulo Lucinda, co-describer of the species.

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Retroculus xinguensis GOSSE, 1971

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

The precise extent of this species’ range is unclear. The majority of records pertain to the lower rio Xingu basin in the state of Pará, northern Brazil, including middle and lower reaches of its major tributary the rio Iriri, although the type locality is in Mato Grosso state several hundred kilometres upstream.

There also exist a handful of records from the rio Jamanxim (a major affluent of the rio Tapajós which drain…

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Symphysodon aequifasciatus PELLEGRIN, 1904

Discus

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

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Laetacara thayeri (STEINDACHNER, 1875)

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

This species is relatively rare in the aquarium trade.

It can be differentiated from all congeners by a combination of possessing ctenoid (vs. cycloid) scales on the sides of the head plus lacking a dark spot at the caudal-fin base.

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Biotodoma cupido (HECKEL, 1840)

Cupid Cichlid

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

Recorded throughout much of the Amazon basin, with its range extending eastwards from the Ucayali system in Peru as far as the Tocantins drainage which flows into the Atlantic alongside the Amazon at its delta. The southern extremity of its range appears to be the Río Mamoré in Bolivia, a tributary of the rio Guaporé, and the northern limit the Essequibo basin, Guyana.

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Satanoperca acuticeps (HECKEL, 1840)

Sharphead Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is relatively rare in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes confused with its similarly-patterned congeners S. daemon and S. lilith. These three species all possess 1-3 dark blotches on the side of the body and a relatively large ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base, characters that immediately separate them from the remainder of the genus which lack blotches on the body and have a relatively small ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base.

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Satanoperca leucosticta (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Whitespot Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

S. leucosticta is frequently available in the ornamental trade and farmed for the purpose in several countries. It is often confused with its congener S. jurupari in aquarium literature and on websites, but is easily recognised by presence (vs. absence) of prominent white spots or vermiform markings on the sides of the head.

Although the presence of white spots on the head does not distinguish it from all known Satanoperca populations (see below), it can…

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