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Satanoperca rhynchitis KULLANDER, 2012

January 3rd, 2015 — 4:18pm

Based on current knowledge, it thus remains impossible to deduce whether the group of putative species currently comprising S. jurupari, S. mapiritensis, and S. rhynchitis, plus populations from Amapá and the upper Negro/upper Orinoco region, represent distinct taxa or a single meta-population which can be referred to as S. jurupari sensu lato. Here on SF we include the named species separately, since they continue to be considered valid.

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Satanoperca lilith KULLANDER & FERREIRA, 1988

January 3rd, 2015 — 3:07pm

Despite its extensive natural distribution S. lilith is uncommon in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes referred to as ‘one-spotted demon fish’ or ‘one spot eartheater’.

It can be distinguished from other members of the genus by possessing a single dark blotch on the flank and a prominent ocellus at the caudal-fin base. Among the named species it is most similar to S. daemon, but that species possesses two blotches on the flank.

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Satanoperca pappaterra (HECKEL, 1840)

Pantanal Eartheater

January 3rd, 2015 — 1:00pm

S. pappaterra is relatively rare in the ornamental trade and much sought after by enthusiasts.

It is easily distinguished from all known congeners by presence of a series of prominent black blotches beneath the dorsal-fin, plus a well-defined dark band extending along the side of the body. In recent genetic analyses its genetic distinctness was strongly supported, with S. jurupari and S. leucosticta its closest relatives.

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Satanoperca mapiritensis (FERNÁNDEZ-YÉPEZ , 1950)

January 2nd, 2015 — 6:50pm

Recent genetic research has revealed there to be a possibility that although S. mapiritensis is genetically distinct from S. leucosticta, it may turn out to be conspecific with S. jurupari and S. rhynchitis. There appears to be no clear genetic separation between these three putative species nor a form known to aquarists as S. sp. ‘Negro-Alto Orinoco’ which replaces S. mapiritensis in the middle and upper Orinoco, Casiquiare Canal, and upper rio Negro.

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Pseudosphromenus cupanus (CUVIER, 1831)

Spiketail Paradisefish

February 23rd, 2014 — 5:02pm

This species is most easily told apart from its only congener P. dayi by lacking (vs. possessing) two dark, irregular lateral stripes on the head and body, and a shorter caudal-fin in males.

The results of phylogenetic analyses by Rüber et al. (2006) suggest that Pseudosphromenus is most closely-related to Malpulutta in an evolutionary sense.

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Channa melasoma (BLEEKER, 1851)

Black Snakehead

January 2nd, 2014 — 7:34pm

This species can be told apart from the similar-looking congener C. baramensis (once considered synonymous with C. melasoma) by absence (vs. presence) of a black spot in the centre of numerous body scales and absence (vs. presence in specimens larger than 120 mm SL) of a barred caudal-fin pattern.

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Channa marulioides (BLEEKER, 1851)

Emperor Snakehead

January 1st, 2014 — 5:31pm

This species is often confused with the nominal congeners C. marulius (Hamilton, 1822) and C. melanoptera (Bleeker, 1855) with all three presenting taxonomic problems.

For example, C. marulioides exhibits a number of variations in colour pattern depending on collection locality with the most common possessing a brownish base colour with a series of dark, chevron-like markings along each flank and some scales margined posteriorly in white.

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Channa maculata (LACEPÈDE, 1801)

Blotched Snakehead

January 1st, 2014 — 4:15pm

This species is frequently confused with C. argus but can be distinguished by the following characters: dorsal-fin rays 38-45 (vs. 47-50 in C. argus); anal fin rays 26-29 (vs. 31-36); lateral line scales 50-56 (vs. 60-66); 2-3 rounded blotches on caudal peduncle (vs. no blotches on caudal peduncle).

It is widely-distributed in Pacific coastal drainages of southeastern China (e.g. the Yangtze, Minjiang, Hangjiang River, and Pearl (Nanjiu…

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Channa marulius (HAMILTON, 1822)

Bullseye Snakehead

January 1st, 2014 — 3:15pm

This species is also referred to as ‘giant’, ‘great’, ‘cobra’, or ‘Indian’ snakehead.

Although currently-considered to be distributed throughout much of southern Asia it is widely-accepted to represent a complex of related species in need of additional research.

A number of geographical variants exhibiting diffe…

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Dario urops BRITZ, ALI & PHILIP , 2012

November 2nd, 2013 — 12:54am

This species has not yet entered the aquarium trade but is maintained by a handful of private collectors.

Though described in 2012 it was in fact first collected in the latter half of the 19th century with Day (1875-1878) having mentioned the presence of Badis dario in ‘Wynaad’ and its occurrence “along the Western Ghats” (the chain of mountains in southwestern India).

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