Neofundulus splendidus n. sp. is described from Bolivia, departamento de Santa Cruz, río San Miguel, upper Mamoré basin. Neofundulus splendidus n. sp. is distinguished from the remaining Neofundulus species by a combination of characters: Large black spot at humeral region with diameter of approximately 1.5-2.0 of pupil in males and females (vs. black spot in humeral region, when present, small- half of pupil), 40-41 scales in longitudinal series (vs. 35-38 in remaining congeners).This is the first record for the genus Neofundulus in río Mamoré basin.
Dalton Tavares Bressane Nielsen and Roger Brousseau: Spectrolebias pilleti, a new annual Killifish (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: Cynolebiatinae) from the upper río Mamoré basin, Bolivia, pp. 115-122
Spectrolebias pilleti n. sp. is described from a temporary pool from the upper río Mamoré basin, Departamento Santa Cruz, Quimone city, Bolivia. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by the unique color pattern of males: 3 to 5 vertical blue bars alternating with a light reddish brown background in males (vs. absence of bars), by the presence of an iridescent blue spot on the flank in female (vs. presence of one or more black spots), by the absence of filaments at the tips of dorsal fin and anal fin in males, except Spectrolebias reticulatus (vs. long filaments on dorsal and anal fins in S. brousseaui and S. filamentosus, filaments on the dorsal fins of S. semiocellatus and S. inaequipinnatus, or filaments in the anal fins of S. chacoensis) and by the presence of scales covering the base of anal fin in males (vs. absence of these scales in the remaining congeners). Also distinguished from all congeners, with the exception of S. reticulatus, by the position of the dorsal fin, which has its origin anterior to the origin of the anal fin in males.
Gerald R. Allen and Renny K. Hadiaty: Melanotaenia sneideri, a New Species of Rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae), from West Papua Province, Indonesia, pp. 137-146
A new species of melanotaeniid rainbowfish, Melanotaenia sneideri, is described from the Bomberai Peninsula in the southwestern Bird’s Head region of western New Guinea (West Papua Province, Indonesia). The new taxon is described on the basis of 25 specimens, 15.9-80.1 mm SL, collected from a karst spring-fed creek in a small ephemeral lake basin at an altitude of 1,050 m in the Kumawa Mountains. It is distinguished from congeners by a combination of the bright red body colour, dark brown to blackish dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins, and relatively deep body (to at least 42.3 % of SL) of adult males. Additional diagnostic features include 18-20 gill rakers on the first branchial arch, 15-16 circumpeduncular scales, and an absence of vomerine teeth or a small, inconspicuous patch of rudimentary vomerine teeth.
Keith C. Martin and Susan Barclay: New Distribution Records for the Cairns Rainbowfish Cairnsichthys rhombosomoides (Melanotaeniidae): implications for conservation of a restricted northern population, pp. 155-164
Four new locality records for the Cairns Rainbowfish Cairnsichthys rhombosomoides Nichols & Raven, 1928 are documented. The new localities are all outside the known geographical range for this species. Three of the new localities appear to represent part of a disjunct northern population in a biogeographical province where the species was previously unknown. The fourth locality appears to be a minor range extension of the existing known population.
The new localities all contain habitats similar to those found in areas where the core populations of C. rhombosomoides occur and environmental data is provided for all of the newly recorded localities. Specimens from the northern localities are genetically distinct, although they appear morphologically similar to those from the core area of distribution. Cairnsichthys rhombosomoides populations at the new localities have extremely restricted habitat requirements and localised distributions, and therefore may be particularly vulnerable to local perturbations, especially those that may reduce stream flows such as extended droughts and human activities such as surface and ground water extraction.
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