We describe spined loaches from the Kyzylagach Bay (Azerbaijan) and from brackish waters of the northeastern Caspian Sea found in museum collections as a separate new species, the Khvalyn loachCobitis amphilekta. The new species differs from other species of the Caspian basin in the following combination of characteristics: one very narrow, weakly discernible spot in the upper part of the base of the caudal fin; Canestrini’s organ in males with a wide and short plate, usually not reaching the end of the third segment of the attached ray; third Gambetta’s zone of pigmentation usually not reaching the base of the anal fin, often not reaching the end of the pectoral fin; scales of oval shape, with a relatively large central part, weakly shifted towards the anterior margin; pronounced ridges on the margins of the caudal penduncle; and short barbels.
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