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Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with a focus on subfamily Hypostominae
September 11, 2014
2:20 pm
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Matt
Málaga, Spain
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June 13, 2011
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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - in press

Abstract

The Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae is the fifth most species-rich vertebrate family on Earth, with over 800 valid species. The Hypostominae is its most species-rich, geographically widespread, and ecomorphologically diverse subfamily. Here, we provide a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of genus-level relationships in the Hypostominae, based on our sequencing and analysis of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (4293 bp total). Our most striking large-scale systematic discovery was that the tribe Hypostomini, which has traditionally been recognized as sister to tribe Ancistrini based on morphological data, was nested within Ancistrini. This required recognition of seven additional tribe-level clades: the Chaetostoma Clade, the Pseudancistrus Clade, the Lithoxus Clade, the ‘Pseudancistrus’ Clade, the Acanthicus Clade, the Hemiancistrus Clade, and the Peckoltia Clade. Results of our analysis, which included type- and non-type species for every valid genus in Hypostominae, support the reevaluation and restriction of several historically problematic genera, including Baryancistrus,CordylancistrusHemiancistrus, and Peckoltia. Much of the deep lineage diversity in Hypostominae is restricted to Guiana Shield and northern Andean drainages, with three tribe-level clades still largely restricted to the Guiana Shield. Of the six geographically widespread clades, a paraphyletic assemblage of three contain lineages restricted to drainages west of the Andes Mountains, suggesting that early diversification of the Hypostominae predated the late Miocene surge in Andean uplift. Our results also highlight examples of trophic ecological diversification and convergence in the Loricariidae, including support for three independent origins of highly similar and globally unique morphological specializations for eating wood.

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