June 13, 2011
A new species of Hemigrammus is described from the middle rio Solimões/Amazonas and tributaries, upper and middle rio Madeira, and rio Paraná-Paraguai basins in Brazil and Paraguay. The new species is most similar among congeners with Hemigrammus marginatus, with which it shares similar caudal-fin pigmentation pattern. The new species can be distinguished from Hemigrammus marginatus by possessing two conspicuous dark patches of pigmentation on caudal fin, occupying most of caudal-fin lobes, except the tips, by having two dark narrow stripes along anal-fin base, and by possessing 5–8 pored lateral line scales. The new species differs from Hyphessobrycon diancistrus, which is similar in color pattern and general body shape, by the presence of small scales on caudal-fin lobes, occupying approximately its basal third, by the presence of two narrow stripes along anal fin base, and by the absence of bony hooks on analfin in mature males. The occurrence of the new species in both Amazon and rio Paraná-Paraguai basins is discussed in order to clarify and expand recent discussions on the biogeographical relationships between both river systems.
Danio feegradei Hora is redescribed based on recently collected specimens from small coastal streams on the western slope of the Rakhine Yoma, ranging from the Thade River drainage southward to slightly north of Kyeintali. Danio absconditus, new species, is described from the Kyeintali Chaung and small coastal streams near Gwa, south of the range of D. feegradei. Both species are distinguished from other Danio by the presence of a dark, elongate or round spot at the base of the caudal fin and a cleithral marking composed of a small black spot margined by a much smaller orange spot. Danio feegradei is characterized by the colour pattern, with series of white spots along the otherwise dark side; D. absconditus by about 7–11 dark vertical bars on the abdominal side. Within Danio, the presence of a complete lateral line, cleithral spot, and 14 circumpeduncular scales is shared with D. dangila and similar species, but these character states may be plesiomorphic as suggested by the shared presence of cleithral spot and complete lateral line in Devario and Betadevario. In other Danio the cleithral spot is absent, the lateral line is short or absent, and the circumpeduncular scale count is lower (10–12). Twenty teleost species are reported from streams on the western slope of the Rakhine Yoma, all probably endemic. The parapatric distribution of D. absconditus and D. feegradei is unique within the genus, and may be partly explained by changes in eustatic sea levels.
The characid genus Oligosarcus consists of 20 described species distributed throughout most of South American river basins below 14º south latitude. This study focus on the phylogenetic relationships of the species of Oligosarcus based on the analysis of osteological characters to provide data to discuss the biogeographic history of the genus. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious tree with 152 steps (CI= 0.355 and RI= 0.600). The 18 included Oligosarcus species were hierarchically organized into 17 clades. A minimal age of 15 Ma for the genus is suggested based on the putatively cladogenetic event represented by the continued shortening of the Eastern Cordillera that established the eastern boundary of the modern central Andean plateau and was responsible for cladogenesis between the common ancestor of O. schindleri + O. bolivianus versus the remaining congeners. There is a pronounced disjunction in the upland species distribution by the lowland areas of the Chaco-Pantanal basin. This indicates that upland habitats (headwater streams) are preferential habitats for a set of species including O. argenteus, O. bolivianus, O. brevioris, O. paranensis, O. perdido, O. pintoi, O. planaltinae, O. brevioris, and O. schindleri. Fragmentation of populations of O. pintoi and O. perdido are at least 2.5 Ma old, since the origin of the upper Paraguay depression clearly promoted the present-day observed disjunction in the distribution of these species. The lowland Oligosarcus species are all included in a single clade but the obtained results suggest that fragmentation of upland versus lowland components of the genus was not causally related to a single vicariant event. The available fossil record of Oligosarcus indicates that the genus already occurred in the coastal plain at about 2.3 to 1.25 Ma. The sister-group relationship between O. hepsetus and O. longirostris provided additional evidences of the so-called historical affinities between the SE Brazilian coastal plain and the Rio Iguaçu drainage basin.
June 13, 2011
The new Danio appears to be sp. 'TW01'? Also interesting is that the authors don't follow the recommendations of Kottelat (2013) regarding the use of Celestichthys, Brachydanio, etc. and retain all species in Danio.
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