While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6–12 pored scales; 23–26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½–4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th–19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin.
A new species of characid is described from the upper rio Machado, a tributary of the rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon lucenorum can be distinguished from all congeners by the unique combination of the presence of a conspicuous rounded humeral blotch and a broad and diffuse longitudinal stripe. The new species is included within the Hyphessobrycon agulha group. The high number of endemic species of fishes occurring in the headwater tributaries of three river systems (rio Madeira, rio Tapajós, and rio Paraguai) draining the watershed defined by the Chapada dos Parecis is discussed.
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