Prior to the description of C. gibberosa in 2003 the genus Cyphotilapia was considered monotypic for almost a century. Members are separated from other cichlid taxa inhabiting Lake Tanganyika by possession of a hump on the forehead and broad vertical bands on the body, although the latter tend not to be visible in large males.
Known only from affluents within the upper rio Tocantins basin draining into the enormous Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoir in Goiás state, Brazil. It has been collected from the rios Maranhão, das Almas, Traíras, and Palmerinha/Palmeira(?).
Type locality is ‘Brazil, Goiás, Rio Tocantins basin, Rio das Almas, tributary of left margin of Rio Maranhão, 14˚37′51.2″S, 49˚1′56.6″W’.
Retroculus spp. are unsuitable for the standard community aquarium, and should be maintained in a set-up designed to resemble a flowing river. The substrate should be composed of soft sand mixed with small pebbles if the aim is to breed the fish (see ‘Reproduction’). Rocks, boulders, roots, branches, and aquatic plants can also be added, although the la…
Based on current knowledge, it thus remains impossible to deduce whether the group of putative species currently comprising S. jurupari, S. mapiritensis, and S. rhynchitis, plus populations from Amapá and the upper Negro/upper Orinoco region, represent distinct taxa or a single meta-population which can be referred to as S. jurupari sensu lato. Here on SF we include the named species separately, since they continue to be considered valid.
Despite its extensive natural distribution S. lilith is uncommon in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes referred to as ‘one-spotted demon fish’ or ‘one spot eartheater’.
It can be distinguished from other members of the genus by possessing a single dark blotch on the flank and a prominent ocellus at the caudal-fin base. Among the named species it is most similar to S. daemon, but that species possesses two blotches on the flank.
S. pappaterra is relatively rare in the ornamental trade and much sought after by enthusiasts.
It is easily distinguished from all known congeners by presence of a series of prominent black blotches beneath the dorsal-fin, plus a well-defined dark band extending along the side of the body. In recent genetic analyses its genetic distinctness was strongly supported, with S. jurupari and S. leucosticta its closest relatives.
Recent genetic research has revealed there to be a possibility that although S. mapiritensis is genetically distinct from S. leucosticta, it may turn out to be conspecific with S. jurupari and S. rhynchitis. There appears to be no clear genetic separation between these three putative species nor a form known to aquarists as S. sp. ‘Negro-Alto Orinoco’ which replaces S. mapiritensis in the middle and upper Orinoco, Casiquiare Canal, and upper rio Negro.
Sympatric fish species in the grasslands include Rivulus schuncki, juveniles of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and an unidentified Nannostomus sp.
One contrasting locality was a flowing igarapé with the fish collected from shallow water alongside Apistogramma gossei, Crenicichla inpa,unidentified…
Has been collected from habitats containing clear, soft, acidic, tea-coloured blackwater, most typically among leaf litter or submerged vegetation in very shallow (10-50 cm depth) water along the margins of streams and other minor tributaries.
At a village called El Niñal close to the mouth of the rio Pasimoni in the Casiquiare drainage pH was…
This species was known as L. sp. ‘Buckelkopf’ in the aquarium hobby prior to publication of its official description.
It’s distinguished from all congeners by possessing 7-8 dorsal-fin rays (vs. 9–10 in L. dorsigera, L. fulvipinnis and L. thayeri, 8–9 in L. curviceps and L. flamannellus, and 9–11 in L. flavilabris).