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Geophagus taeniopareius KULLANDER & ROYERO, 1992

Etymology

Geophagus: from the Greek geo, meaning ‘earth’, and phagos, meaning ‘ to eat’.

Classification

Order: Perciformes Family: Cichlidae

Distribution

Native to the Venezuelan portion of the upper Río Orinoco system where it’s been recorded from various tributary drainages including the Ríos Caura, Cataniapo, Atacavi, Ocamo, Matacuni, Zoapore and Nichare.

Type locality is ‘Río Orinoco, Raudales d Ature, eastern shore, 5°36’N, 67°37’W, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela’.

Habitat

The Río Orinoco lies within Venezuela’s tropical zone which is characterised by year-round warm temperatures and well-defined weather patterns with distinct wet and dry seasons, the former falling between the months of May to November.

During the rainy period flow rate and depth of rivers can vary enormously, even on a daily basis, and turbidity also increases.

At one locality close to the city of Puerto Ayacucho in Amazonas state, Venezuela this species was observed in a pool of the Orinoco’s flood zone containing clear, still water and surrounded by marginal vegetation.

Another habitat also consisted of a flooded zone on Isla Ratón (Mouse Island), an island in the Orinoco main channel close to the border with Colombia, and contained turbid water.

In the Río Zoapore and its tributaries the water was fast-flowing and slightly turbid with a substrate of sand and rocks. Habitats in the Río Cataniapo were mostly near stretches of rapids and contained clear water.

Other fishes occurring in the Orinoco and available in the trade include Corydoras delphax, Platydoras costatus, Baryancistrus beggini, Hypancistrus inspector, Panqolus maccus, Panaque nigrolineatus, Hemigrammus rhodostomus, H. stictus, Hyphessobrycon sweglesi, Paracheirodon axelrodi, Pristella maxillaris, Biotodoma wavrini, Heros severus, Mesonauta insignis, Geophagus abalios, Satanoperca daemon and Uaru fernandezyepezi.

Maximum Standard Length

130 – 150 mm.

Aquarium SizeTop ↑

An aquarium with a base measuring 150 ∗ 45 cm or more is required.

Maintenance

The most essential item of décor is a soft, sandy substrate so that the fish can browse naturally (see ‘Diet’).

Coarser materials such as gravel or small pebbles can inhibit feeding, damage gill filaments and even be ingested with the potential of internal damage or blockages.

Additional furnishings are as much a case of personal taste as anything else but the most favoured set-ups tend to feature relatively dim lighting plus some chunks of driftwood and scattered roots or branches.

Leaf litter is a typical feature of the natural environment but not really recommended in aquaria because the feeding behaviour of Geophagus spp. tends to cause an excess of partially-decomposed material in suspension which not only looks unsightly but can block filter and pump mechanisms.

One or two flattish, water-worn rocks can also be included to provide potential spawning sites if you wish.

Water quality is of the utmost importance since these cichlids are extremely susceptible to deteriorating water quality and swings in chemical parameters so should never be introduced to a biologically immature aquarium.

The best way to achieve the desired stability is to over-filter the tank using a combination of external canister filters and/or a sump system and perform minimum weekly water changes of 50-70%.

If the maintenance regime is insufficient health issues such as head and lateral line erosion or stunted growth can occur.

Mechanical filtration should also be tailored to trap small particles stirred up by the fish as sand can cause blockages and wearing issues with filter mechanisms if allowed to continually run through the system.

High flow rates should be avoided so position filter returns accordingly.

Water Conditions

Temperature: 24 – 30 °C

pH: 5.5 – 6.8

Hardness: 18 – 179 ppm

Diet

Geophagus spp. are benthophagous by nature, employing a method of feeding whereby mouthfuls of substrate are taken and sifted for edible items with the remaining material expelled via the gill openings and mouth.

For this reason they’re commonly termed ‘eartheaters’ and the provision of a suitable substrate is essential to their long-term well-being.

Once settled they readily rise into the water column when food is introduced but continue to browse normally at other times.

The stomach contents of wild specimens mostly comprise small aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, plant material in the form of seeds, organic detritus and sediment.

Even as adults these cichlids seem unable to properly ingest larger food items meaning the diet should contain a variety of high quality, fine-grade prepared foods plus small live or frozen bloodworm, TubifexArtemia, mosquito larvae, etc.

At least some of the dried products should contain a high proportion of vegetable matter such as Spirulina or similar.

Home-made, gelatine-bound recipes containing a mixture of dried fish food, puréed shellfish, fresh fruit and vegetables, for example, are proven to work well and can be cut into bite-sized discs using the end of a sharp pipette or small knife.

Rather than a single large meal offer 3-4 smaller portions daily to allow natural browsing behaviour as this seems to result in the best growth rate and condition.


Behaviour and CompatibilityTop ↑

G. taeniopareius is markedly more aggressive than most other Geophagus spp. but multiple specimens can still be maintained together in larger aquaria.

A group of 5-8 individuals should be the minimum purchase since in smaller groups weaker individuals can become the target of excessive antagonism.

In terms of tankmates other cichlids are generally best avoided although we know of several instances in which this species has been maintained long-term alongside members of the G. surinamensis group (see ‘Notes’).

Smaller fishes are generally ignored and schools of small characids can be added without fear of predation.

Some aquarists keep Geophagus spp. alongside freshwater stingrays of the genus Potamotrygon which in many cases has proven successful but in some has resulted in them disappearing at night (!).

Sexual Dimorphism

Younger specimens are impossible to sex accurately by external means but mature males tend to be a little larger and have longer finnage than females, with dominant specimens often developing a pronounced nuchal hump.

The ovipositor of the female is clearly visible when spawning.

Reproduction

Unlike the majority of congeners which practice mouthbrooding this species is a substrate-spawner adopting a fairly basic reproductive strategy.

There doesn’t appear to be any particular trigger for the spawning process with the main requirements being good diet and stringent maintenance regime involving relatively large weekly water changes.

Since accurate sexing is essentially impossible it’s best to begin with a group of young fish and allow pairs to form naturally.

A degree of patience is also required since it can be at least a year until they become sexually mature.

Courtship is relatively unobtrusive consisting of fin flaring, circling, gaping and head jerking displays, and when ready to spawn a pair will select a suitable site.

Here they dig a large pit which may be defended for some days before a smaller site is selected within it just prior to spawning.

Other fishes are not tolerated in the vicinity of the pit and in smaller aquaria may need to be removed.

The spawning surface is normally a solid object within the territory of the pair and is cleaned thoroughly before any eggs are deposited.

Spawning occurs in typical style with the female laying one or more rows of eggs before the male moves in to fertilise them, the process being repeated numerous times over a period of an hour or two.

200-250 are generally laid and the female stays close to them during the incubation period, tending and defending against intruders, while the male is responsible for defence of the surrounding territory.

After around 3 days (70 hours at 27°C/80.6°F) the eggs begin to hatch with the female often assisting by literally sucking the fry from the eggs and spitting them into nearby cover.

Post-hatching both adults normally continue to guard the fry for a period although in some cases the female continues alone.

The fry are easily-fed, accepting good quality powdered dry foods, Artemia naupliimicroworm, etc. as soon as the free-swimming stage is reached.

If maintaining the adults in a community situation it’s recommended to remove either tankmates or fry as the latter are easy prey for other fishes, including conspecifics, despite the fact that both parents continue to defend them for some time post-hatching.

NotesTop ↑

This species is relatively rare in the hobby but sometimes available from specialist retailers or private breeders.

Though described in 1992 it was first collected much earlier and has been in the hobby since the late 1970s, being known as ‘Wangenstrich-Erdfresser’ (cheek-stripe eartheater) in Germany.

It’s one of just five Geophagus species not to be included in the putative G. surinamensis ‘group’ of closely-related species within the genus along with G. argyrostictus, G. gottwaldi, G. grammepareius and G. harreri.

These are most easily separated from congeners on the basis that they all possess a complete infraorbital stripe but oddly have not had their own group name assigned, usually being referred to simply as ‘non-G. surinamensis group’ species.

Within this small group G. taeniopareius is distinguished by a combination of characters including: dark infraorbital stripe running from the eye to the corner of the opercle; a scaly ‘sheath’ running along the dorsal-fin base; caudal-fin with few, indistinct spots; faint horizontal stripes on the flanks.

In G. argyrostictus and G. harreri the suborbital stripe does not extend to the preopercle (vs. extends to the preopercle in G. taeniopareius) while in G. grammepareius the lower lip is expanded to cover part of the lower jaw (vs. narrow lips) and meristic counts are generally lower (eg. dorsal mode XVI.11 vs. XVII.11, 30 scales in the E1 row vs. 32).

It’s most similar to G. gottwaldi, also native to the upper Río Orinoco, but differs by possession of a relatively small, round midlateral marking (vs. larger and rectangular), less dorsal-fin spines (XV-XVIII vs. XVIII-XIX), small bluish spots on the caudal-fin (vs. large, lightish spots) and smaller adult size (max. 143 mm SL vs. 198 mm).

Representatives of the G. surinamensis assemblage are diagnosed by their relatively deep head and body shape, possession of a variably-sized dark spot on each flank and presence or absence of a small, dark preopercular marking.

There are currently thirteen described members but diversity is predicted to eventually prove much greater with a number of undescribed forms known some of which, such as G. sp. ‘orange head’ and G. sp. ‘Pindaré’, are regularly available in the aquarium trade.

The genus Geophagus was rediagnosed by Kullander (1986) who restricted it to include only those species with paired caudal extensions to the swimbladder lined by 6-12 epihemal ‘ribs’ plus a greater number of caudal than abdominal vertebrae.

Some former species were moved into the resurrected genus Satanoperca while others, such as the ‘Geophagus‘ brasiliensis and ‘G.‘ steindachneri groups represent distinct groupings still in need of definitive classification.

Geophagus and a number of related genera are often included in the putative subfamily Geophaginae.

Kullander (1998) conducted a morphology-based phylogenetic study in which the neotropical Cichlidae was divided into six subfamilies of which the Geophaginae contained 16 genera divided among three ‘tribes’:

Acarichthyini – Acarichthys and Guianacara.
Crenicaratini – BiotoecusCrenicaraDicrossus and Mazarunia.
Geophagini – GeophagusMikrogeophagus, ‘Geophagus‘ brasiliensis group, ‘Geophagus‘ steindachneri group, GymnogeophagusSatanopercaBiotodomaApistogrammaApistogrammoides and Taeniacara.

Later molecular studies by Farias et al. (1999, 2000, 2001) resulted in the additions of Crenicichla and Teleocichla to the Geophaginae, a result supported by López-Fernández et al. (2005) who conducted the most detailed molecular analysis of the grouping to date including 16 of the 18 genera and 30 species.

However their conclusions regarding interrelationships between genera did vary somewhat from previous hypotheses and can be summarised by the following loosely-defined groups:

– a weakly-supported sister group relationship between Acarichthys and Guianacara.
– a well-supported ‘Satanoperca clade‘ comprising SatanopercaApistogrammaApistogrammoides and Taeniacara.
– a ‘big clade‘ with GeophagusMikrogeophagus, ‘Geophagus‘ brasiliensis group, ‘Geophagus‘ steindachneri group, GymnogeophagusBiotodomaCrenicara and Dicrossus.
– a ‘crenicarine clade‘ with Biotoecus and Crenicichla.

No representatives of Teleocichla or Mazarunia were included in the study but the former is well-established as sister to Crenicichla while the latter has grouped closely with Dicrossus and Crenicara in earlier works.

The other main conclusions of the paper are confirmation that Geophaginae is a monophyletic group exhibiting strong signs of having undergone rapid adaptive radiation.

References

  1. Kullander, S. O., R. Royero and D. C. Taphorn, 1992 - Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 3(4): 359-375
    Two new species of Geophagus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Rio Orinoco drainage in Venezuela.
  2. Farias, I. P., G. Ortí and A. Meyer, 2000 - The Journal of Experimental Zoology 288(1): 76-92
    Total evidence: molecules, morphology, and the phylogenetics of cichlid fishes.
  3. Farias, I. P., G. Ortí, I. Sampaio, H. Schneider and A. Meyer, 2001 - Journal of Molecular Evolution 53(2): 89-103
    The cytrochrome b gene as a phylogenetic marker: the limits of resolution for analyzing relationships among cichlid fishes.
  4. Farias, I. P., G. Ortí, I. Sampaio, H. Schneider and A. Meyer, 1999 - Journal of Molecular Evolution 48(6): 703-711
    Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the family Cichlidae: monophyly and fast molecular evolution of the Neotropical assemblage.
  5. Kullander, S. O., 1986 - Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm: 1-431
    Cichlid fishes of the Amazon River drainage of Peru.
  6. Kullander, S. O. and H. Nijssen, 1989 - E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands: i-xxxii + 1-256
    The Cichlids of Surinam.
  7. Lucinda, P. H. F., C. A. S. de Lucena and N. C. Assis, 2010 - Zootaxa 2429: 29-42
    Two new species of cichlid fish genus Geophagus Heckel from the Rio Tocantins drainage (Perciformes: Cichlidae).
  8. López-Fernández, H. and D. C. Taphorn, 2004 - Zootaxa 439: 1-27
    Geophagus abalios, G. dicrozoster and G. winemilleri (Perciformes: Cichlidae), three new species from Venezuela.
  9. López-Fernández, H., R. L. Honeycutt, M. L. J. Stiassny and K. O. Winemiller, 2005 - Zoologica Scripta 34(6): 627-651
    Morphology, molecules, and character congruence in the phylogeny of South American geophagine cichlids (Perciformes, Labroidei).
  10. Reis, R. E., S. O. Kullander and C. J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds), 2003 - EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre: i-xi + 1-729
    Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. CLOFFSCA.
  11. Schindler, I. and W. Staeck, 2006 - Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 56: 91-97
    Geophagus gottwaldi sp. n. - a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the drainage of the upper rí­o Orinoco in Venezuela.
  12. Staeck, W. and I. Schindler, 2006 - Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 55: 69-75
    Geophagus parnaibae sp. n. -- a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae) from the rio Parnaíba basin, Brazil.

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