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Colomesus tocantinensis AMARAL, BRITO, SILVA & CARVALHO, 2013

August 13th, 2015 — 8:18pm

It is distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: anal-fin with 6-7 basal pterygiophores and 9 rays (vs. 10-11 rays in C. asellus and C. psittacus; dorsal-fin with 10 bas…

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Colomesus psittacus (BLOCH & SCHNEIDER, 1801)

Banded Puffer

August 13th, 2015 — 4:38pm

Although it does penetrate the lower basins of rivers, particularly the Amazon where it has been collected from the rio Xingu several hundred kilometres from its mouth, this species is predominantly an inhabitant of mangrove swamps, estuaries, and other such saline habitats.

It is particularly common in tidal channels, shallow inshore lagoons, and the lower reaches of rivers.

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Retroculus acherontos LANDIN, MAREIRA & FIGUEIREDO, 2015

July 23rd, 2015 — 4:46pm

Known only from affluents within the upper rio Tocantins basin draining into the enormous Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoir in Goiás state, Brazil. It has been collected from the rios Maranhão, das Almas, Traíras, and Palmerinha/Palmeira(?).

Type locality is ‘Brazil, Goiás, Rio Tocantins basin, Rio das Almas, tributary of left margin of Rio Maranhão, 14˚37′51.2″S, 49˚1′56.6″W’.

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Retroculus lapidifer (CASTELNAU, 1855)

July 21st, 2015 — 8:14pm

Retroculus spp. are unsuitable for the standard community aquarium, and should be maintained in a set-up designed to resemble a flowing river. The substrate should be composed of soft sand mixed with small pebbles if the aim is to breed the fish (see ‘Reproduction’). Rocks, boulders, roots, branches, and aquatic plants can also be added, although the la…

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Scleromystax sp. C113

February 17th, 2015 — 5:16pm

This fish is one of a number of apparently unidentified Scleromystax species known in the aquarium hobby.

The genus Scleromystax is included in the family Callichthyidae, of which members are often referred to collectively as ‘armoured’ or ‘mailed’ catfishes group due to the presence of bony plates in place of scales on the body.

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Scleromystax salmacis BRITTO & REIS, 2005

February 17th, 2015 — 4:36pm

It is most similar to S. macropterus, but differs in absence (vs. presence) of a black spot on the base of the median caudal-fin rays, a higher number of pectoral-fin rays (I,8,i vs. I,7,i), males with somewhat more slender bodies (25.7- 30.5% in SL [range 26.3-28.8% in type series] vs. 30.4-34.6% in SL), an…

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Scleromystax prionotos (NIJSSEN & ISBRÜCKER, 1980)

February 17th, 2015 — 2:24pm

Scleromystax spp. are foraging omnivores, and most will accept sinking dried foods as well as small live and frozen varieties such as chironomid larvae (bloodworm), Tubifex, etc. Feeding a varied diet will ensure the fish are in optimum condition.

Under no circumstances should they be expected to survive on ‘left-overs’ from other inhabitants of the aquarium or relied on to ‘clean’ the aquarium.

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Scleromystax macropterus (REGAN, 1913)

Sailfin 'Cory'

February 17th, 2015 — 1:33pm

Known from minor rivers in the coastal states of São Paolo, Paraná, and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, plus some tributaries of the rio Paraná basin in Paraguay.

Type locality is ‘Paranaguá, 25°32’S, 48°36’W, Paraná, Brazil’.

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Satanoperca lilith KULLANDER & FERREIRA, 1988

January 3rd, 2015 — 3:07pm

Despite its extensive natural distribution S. lilith is uncommon in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes referred to as ‘one-spotted demon fish’ or ‘one spot eartheater’.

It can be distinguished from other members of the genus by possessing a single dark blotch on the flank and a prominent ocellus at the caudal-fin base. Among the named species it is most similar to S. daemon, but that species possesses two blotches on the flank.

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Satanoperca pappaterra (HECKEL, 1840)

Pantanal Eartheater

January 3rd, 2015 — 1:00pm

S. pappaterra is relatively rare in the ornamental trade and much sought after by enthusiasts.

It is easily distinguished from all known congeners by presence of a series of prominent black blotches beneath the dorsal-fin, plus a well-defined dark band extending along the side of the body. In recent genetic analyses its genetic distinctness was strongly supported, with S. jurupari and S. leucosticta its closest relatives.

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