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Satanoperca acuticeps (HECKEL, 1840)

Sharphead Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is relatively rare in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes confused with its similarly-patterned congeners S. daemon and S. lilith. These three species all possess 1-3 dark blotches on the side of the body and a relatively large ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base, characters that immediately separate them from the remainder of the genus which lack blotches on the body and have a relatively small ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base.

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Satanoperca leucosticta (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Whitespot Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

S. leucosticta is frequently available in the ornamental trade and farmed for the purpose in several countries. It is often confused with its congener S. jurupari in aquarium literature and on websites, but is easily recognised by presence (vs. absence) of prominent white spots or vermiform markings on the sides of the head.

Although the presence of white spots on the head does not distinguish it from all known Satanoperca populations (see below), it can…

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Etroplus canarensis DAY, 1877

Canara Pearlspot Cichlid

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

Etroplus is the only cichlid genus native to the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka and currently comprises three species among which E. canarensis is uniquely limited to freshwater and restricted in range.

Its congeners E. maculatus and E. suratensis are both euryhaline inhabiting estuaries, coastal lagoons and the lower reaches of rivers around coastlines of western and southern India plus northern Sri Lanka.

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Geophagus sp. 'orange head'

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

There are at least two variants available one of which is often traded as G.sp. ‘Araguaia orange head’. This is misleading since both are endemic to the Tapajós drainage (see ‘Distribution’), and appears to date back to an error in collection locality when the fish were first exported.

The two differ in the extent of orange colouration on the head which extends onto the opercle in G. sp. ‘orange head (rio Arapiuns form) but is mostly restricted to the area above the ey…

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Geophagus proximus (CASTELNAU, 1855)

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is rare in the hobby though it’s name is often attached to shipments of other Geophagus species. It’s a member of the nominal G. surinamensis ‘group’ of closely-related species within the genus and can be identified by a combination of characters including: possession of dark preopercular marking; no vertical bars on the flanks; relatively large, roughly oblong-shaped dark midlateral marking; caudal fin brownish with 3-5 light stripes on upper lobe and less well-defined stripes or mottled pattern of light spots with narrow dark interspaces on lower lobe.

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Geophagus sp. 'Pindaré'

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

Known only from the rio Pindaré in Maranhão state, north-eastern Brazil which drains into the Baía de São Marcos (St. Mark’s Bay) along with the rios Mearim, of which it is sometimes considered a tributary, and Grajaú. Some sections of the Pindaré have been heavily degraded via removal of riparian vegetation for agriculture and habitats destroyed due to resultant siltation.

The river is poorly-studied and the conservation status of its fishes mostly unconfirmed so su…

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'Geophagus' iporangensis HASEMAN, 1911

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

Juvenile specimens of this species are readily confused with those of other members of the 'G.' brasiliensis species group, but adults are easily-distinguished by their relatively smaller adult size and comparative lack of reflective blue scales on the body and head.

The genus Geophagus was rediagnosed by Kullander (1986) who restricted it to include only those species with paired caudal extensions to the swi…

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'Geophagus' pellegrini REGAN, 1912

Yellowhump Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species appears to be a relative ecological generalist. During a sampling trip in 1989 it was collected various habitat-types including a narrow (maximum width 3 m) stream containing shallow (maximum depth 1 m), transparent, moderate to fast-flowing water and substrate comprising gravel, mud, clay and organic debris including submerged logs. Aquatic plants consisted of water lilies and marginal vegetation was dense, comprising various trees, shrubs, grasses and ferns.

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Cryptoheros nanoluteus (ALLGAYER, 1994)

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

Inhabits moderate to fast-flowing, well-oxygenated, lowland streams and rivers with pH measured to range between 5.4 and 8.0 and temperature 22-31°C/71.6-87.8°F, while conductivity at one habitat was 600 µS.

Substrates may be composed of open mud or sand, or strewn with variably-sized boulders depending on locality, while aquatic plants have not been observed.

It occurs sympatrically with the convict cichlid, Amatitlania nigrofasciata with oth…

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Apistogramma sp. 'Kelleri'

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This undescribed species was first collected and subsequently appeared in the aquarium hobby during 2008. It was exported again in late 2009 and early 2010 under the names A. sp. 'Jutai' and A. sp. 'diamond face', and said to have been collected in the Río Jutai, Amazonas state, Brazil. The Jutai is a south bank tributary of the Solimões but lies several hundred kilometres downstream of Leticia so this information, from a purportedly trustworthy source, initiall…

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