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Iguanodectes spilurus (GÜNTHER, 1864)

Green Line Lizard Tetra

January 2nd, 2014 — 5:07pm

Widely-distributed throughout the Amazon, Orinoco, Essequibo, and Tocantins river systems in Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana.

Type locality is ‘Rio Cupai [= Rio Cupari], Rio Tapajós basin, Amazon River drainage, Pará State, Brazil’.

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Boulengerella cuvieri (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829)

March 18th, 2013 — 12:29pm

It’s known by various vernacular names including ‘Pirá-pacu’, ‘Pira-pucu’ or ‘Diente de cao’ (central Amazon), ‘Bicuda’ or ‘Uena’ (rio Tocantins), ‘Bicuda’ (rio Tapajós), ‘Aguejeta’ or ‘Picua’ (Venezuela), and ‘Moruwi’ or ‘Pirapoko’ (Guyana).

The entire dorsal-fin base is located anteriorly to a vertical through the anal-fin origin and this character distinguishes it from all other ctenolucids except B. lucius and B. xyrekes.

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Hydrolycus tatauaia TOLEDO-PIZA, MENEZES & SANTOS, 1999

March 13th, 2013 — 4:36pm

Vernacular names in Brazil include ‘Cachorra’ or ‘Pirandirá’, although these are also applied to congeners.

It can be told apart from all congeners by the following combination of characters: head and body silvery with dark dorsal surface; an elongate dark blotch posterior to the opercle; dorsal, caudal and anal-fin rays reddish to orange proximally with some individual variation in intensity and tonality; adipose fin dark, with diffuse black pigmentation.

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Nannostomus minimus EIGENMANN, 1909

Least Pencilfish

October 29th, 2012 — 10:13am

Inhabits sluggish blackwater tributaries, small rivers and swampy areas, particularly in areas with dense growth of aquatic or overhanging riparian vegetation, submerged woody structures and leaf litter. The water is typically stained darkly with humic acids and other chemicals released by decaying organic material, the dissolved mineral content is generally negligible and pH can be as low as 4.0.

N. minimus occurs sympat…

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Nannostomus espei (MEINKEN, 1956)

Barred Pencilfish

October 25th, 2012 — 9:09am

This species is sometimes traded as ‘Espei’s’, ‘four-barred’ or ‘banded’ pencilfish and is sought after in the aquarium hobby, though normally quite expensive to buy.

It’s most-easily identified by its unique colour pattern of 5 dark, vertically-orientated bar-like markings on each flank, this in direct contrast to the horizontal stripes seen in other congeners…

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Ageneiosus ucayalensis CASTELNAU, 1855

March 13th, 2012 — 1:26pm

Apparently this species is polymorphic with body patterning varying significantly depending on locality. Individuals collected from black water habitats tend to be noticeably darker in overall colouration, for example, with this being particularly evident among populations from the Guiana Shield.

The genus Ageneiosus was at one point classified in…

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Copella arnoldi (REGAN, 1912)

Splash Tetra

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

This species is also known as the ‘spraying’, ‘splashing’ or ‘jumping’ tetra and these names are also sometimes applied to its congeners although none of them exhibit a comparable spawning strategy, simply depositing their eggs among vegetation at or around the water surface.

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Colomesus asellus (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Amazon Puffer

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is also referred to as ‘South American puffer’, ‘SAP’, ‘Amazonian puffer’, ‘Peruvian puffer’, or ‘Brazilian puffer’ in the ornamental trade.

Within the genus Colomesus, C. asellus can be immediately identified by possessing a unique transverse row of dermal flaps across the chin which is absent in its congeners C. psittacus and C. tocantinensis.

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Satanoperca leucosticta (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Whitespot Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

S. leucosticta is frequently available in the ornamental trade and farmed for the purpose in several countries. It is often confused with its congener S. jurupari in aquarium literature and on websites, but is easily recognised by presence (vs. absence) of prominent white spots or vermiform markings on the sides of the head.

Although the presence of white spots on the head does not distinguish it from all known Satanoperca populations (see below), it can…

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Aequidens tetramerus (HECKEL, 1840)

Saddle Cichlid

March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

This is the type species of the genus Aequidens and has the widest distribution of any member species. It exists in various colour forms depending on locality with variants from Ecuador and Peru being particularly sought after since they develop striking red (Ecuador) or orange (Peru) colouration on the lower part of the jaw, head and anterior portion of the belly whereas those from Brazil tend to have an overall grey/blue/green colouration, for example.

Despite its type status it's long…

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