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Hydrolycus scomberoides (CUVIER, 1819)

Vampire Tetra

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

This species may be referred to using a variety of names including ‘scomb’, ‘sabre tooth tetra’, ‘sabre tusk barracuda’, ‘dog tooth characin, ‘vampire fish’, ‘Cachorra’ or Pirandirá (the latter two names being used in Brazil where they’re also applied to congeners).

It’s regularly confused with the payara, H. armatus, though that species grows considerably larger, is pop…

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Acestrorhynchus falcatus (BLOCH, 1794)

Red-tailed Freshwater Barracuda

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

The vernacular name of this fish is derived from its appearance and behaviour, rather than a genetic association with the marine barracuda, and it’s also sometimes referred to as ‘pike characin’ or ‘spotted cachorro’ with local vernacular names including ‘Grand dent-chien’ (French Guiana), ‘ Cachorrinho’ or ‘Ueua’ (Brazil).

Although most species of Acestrorhynchus appear superficially similar to one another most exhibit distinguishable external chara…

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Colomesus asellus (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Amazon Puffer

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is also referred to as ‘South American puffer’, ‘SAP’, ‘Amazonian puffer’, ‘Peruvian puffer’, or ‘Brazilian puffer’ in the ornamental trade.

Within the genus Colomesus, C. asellus can be immediately identified by possessing a unique transverse row of dermal flaps across the chin which is absent in its congeners C. psittacus and C. tocantinensis.

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Satanoperca acuticeps (HECKEL, 1840)

Sharphead Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is relatively rare in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes confused with its similarly-patterned congeners S. daemon and S. lilith. These three species all possess 1-3 dark blotches on the side of the body and a relatively large ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base, characters that immediately separate them from the remainder of the genus which lack blotches on the body and have a relatively small ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base.

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Brachyplatystoma filamentosum (LICHTENSTEIN, 1819)


March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

In the Amazon region it is only specimens larger than around 160 cm and werighing in excess of 50 kg that are referred to as ‘Piraíba’ with the name ‘filhote’ normally applied to smaller individuals. Other vernacular names include ‘Salton catfish’, ‘Kumakuma’; and ‘tiger antenna catfish’; with members of the genus often referred to collectively as ‘goliath catfishes’.

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Astyanax bimaculatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

Two Spot Astyanax

March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

A. bimaculatus is not a popular aquarium fish but is available on occasion exception, most often as a contaminant among shipments of other species.

It’s identity is also in question to an extent with the name currently applied to what is considered to represent a species complex comprising at least four taxa.

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Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma (FOWLER, 1943)

Bleeding Heart Tetra

March 13th, 2012 — 1:20pm

In the igarapés Baré and Ubim, western Brazil H. erythrostigma was collected from stretches measuring 5-7 metres in width with thick riparian and overhanging vegetation.

The substrate was mostly composed of sand and the fish displayed a preference for boundary zones between shallow and deeper water. Conductivity was measured at 14.2-62.1 mS/cm³, dissolved oxy…

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Corydoras arcuatus ELWIN, 1938

Skunk Cory; C020

March 13th, 2012 — 1:19pm

This species is among the more popular Corydoras in the aquarium hobby and is widely available. It may also be referred to as ‘arched cory’.

There exist a number of similar-looking congeners, particularly C. urucu (Britto et al., 2009), described from the rio Urucu in Coari municipality, Amazonas state, Brazil, and C. narcissus from the rio Purus. The latter appears to have also been traded as C. sp. ‘super arcuatus longnose’ while a larg…

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Geophagus altifrons HECKEL, 1840

March 13th, 2012 — 1:19pm

Despite its designation as type species this is among the most frequently-misidentified members of the genus.

This is in part because its natural distribution was earlier considered even more extensive than the still-substantial range recognised today, with populations from the Río Orinoco, Guianas and rio Tocantins now recognised as species in their own right.

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Satanoperca jurupari (HECKEL, 1840)

Demon Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:19pm

S. jurupari is also known as ‘demon fish’, ‘jurupari earth eater’, ‘green horse face’, or simply ‘jurupari’ in the aquarium hobby.

It can be distinguished from other members of the genus by the following combination of characters: presence of a relatively small dark ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base; absence of well-defined dark blot…

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