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Ageneiosus inermis (LINNAEUS, 1766)


March 13th, 2012 — 1:26pm

The genus Ageneiosus was at one point classified in the family Ageneiosidae alongside the genus Tetranematichthys, but this was not accepted by all authors. The grouping remains poorly-studied with the last major revision having been conducted by Watson (1990) in his unpublished dissertation, in which A. inermis was included under the currently synonymous name A. brevifilis. It can be separated from the majority of the genus (except A. marmoratus) by possession of a truncate caudal fin, and from…

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Hypancistrus sp.

L260, Queen Arabesque Pleco

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

A similar-looking, larger form from the rio Jarí, which enters the Amazon from the opposite bank a few hundred kilometres downstream from the Tapajós has been assigned the code L411.

The two can be told apart relatively easily since in L260 the white vermiculations on the body are significantly finer than in L411, in which the black and white components of the colour pattern are of more-or-less equivalent width.

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Baryancistrus sp. L142

Big White Spot Pleco, L142, LDA033

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

The genus Baryancistrus can be distinguished from all other loricariids by possession of an enlarged membrane located posteriorly to the last branched dorsal-fin ray. This membrane may or may not reach the supporting structure of the adipose fin and in this way members can be told apart from the genera Oligancistrus, Parancistrus, and Spectracanthicus, in which the dorsal and adipose fins are completely connected, and Hemiancistrus

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Hydrolycus scomberoides (CUVIER, 1819)

Vampire Tetra

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

This species may be referred to using a variety of names including ‘scomb’, ‘sabre tooth tetra’, ‘sabre tusk barracuda’, ‘dog tooth characin, ‘vampire fish’, ‘Cachorra’ or Pirandirá (the latter two names being used in Brazil where they’re also applied to congeners).

It’s regularly confused with the payara, H. armatus, though that species grows considerably larger, is pop…

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Retroculus xinguensis GOSSE, 1971

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

The precise extent of this species’ range is unclear. The majority of records pertain to the lower rio Xingu basin in the state of Pará, northern Brazil, including middle and lower reaches of its major tributary the rio Iriri, although the type locality is in Mato Grosso state several hundred kilometres upstream.

There also exist a handful of records from the rio Jamanxim (a major affluent of the rio Tapajós which drain…

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Colomesus asellus (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Amazon Puffer

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is also referred to as ‘South American puffer’, ‘SAP’, ‘Amazonian puffer’, ‘Peruvian puffer’, or ‘Brazilian puffer’ in the ornamental trade.

Within the genus Colomesus, C. asellus can be immediately identified by possessing a unique transverse row of dermal flaps across the chin which is absent in its congeners C. psittacus and C. tocantinensis.

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Nannostomus eques STEINDACHNER, 1876

Hockeystick Pencilfish

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species has been referred to the genera Poecilobrycon and Nannobrycon in the past and in the aquarium hobby is also known as ‘rocket’, ‘brown’, ‘brown-tailed’, ‘diptail’, or ‘tubemouth’ pencilfish.It’s a popular aquarium fish and has an interesting oblique swimming-style, a behavioural trait shared only with N. unifasciatus among congeners.

In the original description the colour pattern is given by Steindachner as a brown lateral stripe exte…

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Satanoperca acuticeps (HECKEL, 1840)

Sharphead Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is relatively rare in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes confused with its similarly-patterned congeners S. daemon and S. lilith. These three species all possess 1-3 dark blotches on the side of the body and a relatively large ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base, characters that immediately separate them from the remainder of the genus which lack blotches on the body and have a relatively small ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base.

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Geophagus sp. 'orange head'

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

There are at least two variants available one of which is often traded as G.sp. ‘Araguaia orange head’. This is misleading since both are endemic to the Tapajós drainage (see ‘Distribution’), and appears to date back to an error in collection locality when the fish were first exported.

The two differ in the extent of orange colouration on the head which extends onto the opercle in G. sp. ‘orange head (rio Arapiuns form) but is mostly restricted to the area above the ey…

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Apistogramma bitaeniata PELLEGRIN, 1936

Two-striped Apisto

March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

Localities known in the hobby include ‘Pastaza’, ‘Putumayo’, ‘Requena’, ‘Río Nanay’, ‘Rio Napo’, ‘Maniti’, ‘Momón’, ‘Río Tigre’, ‘Río Ampiyacu’, ‘Shishita’, ‘Shushupi’, ‘Yavari’, ‘Tefé’, ‘Manaquiri’, ‘Lago do Januari’, ‘Mamori’ (often misspelled ‘Mamuri’), ‘Careiro’, ‘Manacapuru’, ‘Juruá’, ‘Curuaí’, and ‘Purutu’ though we’ve been unable to find anywhere matching the latter name within the species’ known distribution, and in fact several of these names are applied incorrectly on a regular basis.

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