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Laetacara thayeri (STEINDACHNER, 1875)

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

This species is relatively rare in the aquarium trade.

It can be differentiated from all congeners by a combination of possessing ctenoid (vs. cycloid) scales on the sides of the head plus lacking a dark spot at the caudal-fin base.

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Colomesus asellus (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Amazon Puffer

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is also referred to as ‘South American puffer’, ‘SAP’, ‘Amazonian puffer’, ‘Peruvian puffer’, or ‘Brazilian puffer’ in the ornamental trade.

Within the genus Colomesus, C. asellus can be immediately identified by possessing a unique transverse row of dermal flaps across the chin which is absent in its congeners C. psittacus and C. tocantinensis.

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Nannostomus marginatus EIGENMANN, 1909

Dwarf Pencilfish

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

There also exist a number of minor differences in colour pattern between populations. For example some Peruvian forms have yellow pigmentation on the body and fins, and those from Guyana and Suriname possess a short red stripe on vertical scale rows 6-9, above the central dark stripe on the body.

Rio Negro forms have a similar red stripe but overlapping the central dark stripe and extending along most of the flank, while a form from Colombia has an elongate red stripe which is broken in two beneath the dorsal-fi…

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Nannostomus eques STEINDACHNER, 1876

Hockeystick Pencilfish

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species has been referred to the genera Poecilobrycon and Nannobrycon in the past and in the aquarium hobby is also known as ‘rocket’, ‘brown’, ‘brown-tailed’, ‘diptail’, or ‘tubemouth’ pencilfish.It’s a popular aquarium fish and has an interesting oblique swimming-style, a behavioural trait shared only with N. unifasciatus among congeners.

In the original description the colour pattern is given by Steindachner as a brown lateral stripe exte…

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Satanoperca acuticeps (HECKEL, 1840)

Sharphead Eartheater

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is relatively rare in the ornamental trade, where it is sometimes confused with its similarly-patterned congeners S. daemon and S. lilith. These three species all possess 1-3 dark blotches on the side of the body and a relatively large ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base, characters that immediately separate them from the remainder of the genus which lack blotches on the body and have a relatively small ocellus on the upper caudal-fin base.

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Geophagus proximus (CASTELNAU, 1855)

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is rare in the hobby though it’s name is often attached to shipments of other Geophagus species. It’s a member of the nominal G. surinamensis ‘group’ of closely-related species within the genus and can be identified by a combination of characters including: possession of dark preopercular marking; no vertical bars on the flanks; relatively large, roughly oblong-shaped dark midlateral marking; caudal fin brownish with 3-5 light stripes on upper lobe and less well-defined stripes or mottled pattern of light spots with narrow dark interspaces on lower lobe.

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Astyanax bimaculatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

Two Spot Astyanax

March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

A. bimaculatus is not a popular aquarium fish but is available on occasion exception, most often as a contaminant among shipments of other species.

It’s identity is also in question to an extent with the name currently applied to what is considered to represent a species complex comprising at least four taxa.

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Geophagus altifrons HECKEL, 1840

March 13th, 2012 — 1:19pm

Despite its designation as type species this is among the most frequently-misidentified members of the genus.

This is in part because its natural distribution was earlier considered even more extensive than the still-substantial range recognised today, with populations from the Río Orinoco, Guianas and rio Tocantins now recognised as species in their own right.

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Acarichthys heckelii (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Threadfin Acara

March 13th, 2012 — 1:18pm

The genus Acarichthys remains monotypic and was resdescribed by Kullander (1986) who characterised it by the following: lack of epibranchial lobe; comparatively few (12-14)rays; pelvic fins with relatively broad tips (branches of the first ray are equal in length or the inner is slightly longer); possession of a single supraneural plus 14-15 vertebrae (these characters taken as a combination); no caudal extensions to swim bladder; no caudal ribs.

Its current taxonomic position is based largel…

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