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Ancistrus ranunculus MULLER, RAPP PY-DANIEL & ZUANON, 1994

Medusa Plec, L034

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

A somehwhat odd-looking species with a distinctive wide head and overall flattened profile. Unfortunately this fish is not the easiest fish to keep alive in the aquarium since it requires rather specialised conditions and is often in poor condition post-import.

As a juvenile, it often sports a pattern of light spots on the body, leading to confusion with the similarly shaped L255 species.In A. ranunculus, these spots fade as the fish mature,…

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Rhaphiodon vulpinus SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

Biara

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

R. vulpinus is the most widely-distributed member of the family Cynodontidae.

Type locality is given simply as ‘Brazilian rivers’, but this species is currently understood to be distributed in the Amazon basin from the Río Ucayali system in Peru, eastward as far as the rio Xingu in Brazil, plus the rio Tocantins and Rio Capim basins.

It’s also known from the Río Orinoco ba…

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Retroculus xinguensis GOSSE, 1971

March 13th, 2012 — 1:23pm

The precise extent of this species’ range is unclear. The majority of records pertain to the lower rio Xingu basin in the state of Pará, northern Brazil, including middle and lower reaches of its major tributary the rio Iriri, although the type locality is in Mato Grosso state several hundred kilometres upstream.

There also exist a handful of records from the rio Jamanxim (a major affluent of the rio Tapajós which drain…

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Colomesus asellus (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Amazon Puffer

March 13th, 2012 — 1:22pm

This species is also referred to as ‘South American puffer’, ‘SAP’, ‘Amazonian puffer’, ‘Peruvian puffer’, or ‘Brazilian puffer’ in the ornamental trade.

Within the genus Colomesus, C. asellus can be immediately identified by possessing a unique transverse row of dermal flaps across the chin which is absent in its congeners C. psittacus and C. tocantinensis.

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Aequidens tetramerus (HECKEL, 1840)

Saddle Cichlid

March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

This is the type species of the genus Aequidens and has the widest distribution of any member species. It exists in various colour forms depending on locality with variants from Ecuador and Peru being particularly sought after since they develop striking red (Ecuador) or orange (Peru) colouration on the lower part of the jaw, head and anterior portion of the belly whereas those from Brazil tend to have an overall grey/blue/green colouration, for example.

Despite its type status it's long…

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Astyanax bimaculatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

Two Spot Astyanax

March 13th, 2012 — 1:21pm

A. bimaculatus is not a popular aquarium fish but is available on occasion exception, most often as a contaminant among shipments of other species.

It’s identity is also in question to an extent with the name currently applied to what is considered to represent a species complex comprising at least four taxa.

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Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis AHL, 1937

Lemon Tetra

March 13th, 2012 — 1:20pm

This species is a popular aquarium fish and is bred on a commercial basis in several countries, with a selectively-bred albino form also available.

Wild specimens are rarely collected due to the low price of the farmed fish, but the origin of the commercial strain is questionable. The species was considered endemic to the rio Tapajós basin, but in the early 1990s fish appearing identical to the aquarium form were photographed in the…

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Geophagus altifrons HECKEL, 1840

March 13th, 2012 — 1:19pm

Despite its designation as type species this is among the most frequently-misidentified members of the genus.

This is in part because its natural distribution was earlier considered even more extensive than the still-substantial range recognised today, with populations from the Río Orinoco, Guianas and rio Tocantins now recognised as species in their own right.

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Leporinus fasciatus (BLOCH, 1794)

Banded Leporinus

March 13th, 2012 — 1:19pm

This species is also referred to as ‘black-anded leporinus’, ‘striped leporinus’ and ‘eight-banded leporinus’.

Young specimens are often traded for aquaria without warning as to their potential size and requirements, and as a result it’s fairly ubiquitous in public aquarium displays.

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Acarichthys heckelii (MÜLLER & TROSCHEL, 1849)

Threadfin Acara

March 13th, 2012 — 1:18pm

The genus Acarichthys remains monotypic and was resdescribed by Kullander (1986) who characterised it by the following: lack of epibranchial lobe; comparatively few (12-14)rays; pelvic fins with relatively broad tips (branches of the first ray are equal in length or the inner is slightly longer); possession of a single supraneural plus 14-15 vertebrae (these characters taken as a combination); no caudal extensions to swim bladder; no caudal ribs.

Its current taxonomic position is based largel…

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